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Tokenization of Real-World Assets: Legal Challenges and Considerations

Blockchain technology has introduced a revolutionary asset management and investment approach, notably through tokenizing real-world assets (RWAs). 

Tokenized RWAs on the blockchain represent a diverse array of physical and traditional financial assets, including but not limited to cash, commodities, equities, and bonds. This process transforms how these assets are accessed, exchanged, and managed, leveraging blockchain technology to offer opportunities in financial services and various non-financial applications.

Key Terms

  1. Tokenization: This refers to converting rights to an asset into a digital token on a blockchain. This involves fragmenting the asset into tradable shares or tokens, each representing a fractional ownership or interest in the asset.

  2. Real-World Assets (RWAs): These are tangible or intangible assets outside the digital realm, such as real estate, art, or commodities.

  3. Smart Contracts: Automated, self-executing contracts with the terms directly written into code on a blockchain, facilitating, verifying, or enforcing the negotiation or performance of a contract.

Tokenizing an asset involves a multi-step process:

  1. Asset Identification and Valuation: The first steps involve identifying the asset to be tokenized, which could range from real estate and fine art to commodities or intellectual property. An asset valuation is then conducted, followed by a decision on fractionally representing the asset in digital tokens.

  2. Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Ensuring adherence to relevant laws and regulations may involve forming legal entities like Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) to streamline tokenization while complying with legal norms. An SPV is established for specific financial objectives, including asset management, risk mitigation, or investment facilitation.

  3. Smart Contract Creation: The next step is the creation of blockchain-based smart contracts. These contracts detail the procedures for token creation, management, and trading. Smart contracts are instrumental in automating processes and ensuring execution per agreed terms.

  4. Blockchain Platform Selection: Platforms like Ethereum are often preferred for their smart contract capabilities and robust developer community, but other blockchain systems with tokenization features can also be considered.

  5. Token Creation: This stage involves the generation of digital tokens that signify ownership or rights over the physical asset. Each token typically represents a fraction of the asset's value; it can be fungible or non-fungible. These tokens are developed on the selected blockchain, adhering to established standards such as ERC-20 or ERC721 for Ethereum-based tokens. 

  6. Ownership Ledger: Blockchain technology provides a transparent and immutable ledger to record token ownership. This ledger tracks all transactions involving the tokens, including purchases, sales, and transfers.

  7. Custody Solutions: Robust custody solutions are essential for the physical assets underlying the tokens. This may involve physical security for tangible assets or secure digital storage solutions for intangible assets.

  8. Off-chain Data Integration: Ensuring the integrity and transparency of the tokenized assets necessitates incorporating reliable off-chain data. This is typically achieved through decentralized oracle networks, which securely feed external, real-world information to the blockchain, thereby maintaining the accuracy and transparency of the tokenized assets.

  9. Exchange and Marketplace Integration: A vital component is establishing a marketplace or platform for buying, selling, and trading these tokenized assets. Integration with cryptocurrency exchanges is often employed to facilitate easy access and trading for investors.

  10. Enhancing Accessibility and Liquidity: Tokenizing physical assets boosts their accessibility and liquidity. Unlike traditional markets with stringent trading hours and high entry barriers, these tokenized assets can be traded continuously, offering greater flexibility and accessibility to investors.

Legal Challenges in RWAs Tokenization

Despite the technological advancements, tokenizing RWAs presents several legal challenges:

  1. Regulatory Compliance: Adhering to diverse regulatory frameworks, especially when dealing with security tokens subject to securities laws. Tokenized assets might be subject to the laws of multiple jurisdictions, mainly if traded internationally.

  2. Custody and Ownership: Ensuring secure custody of the physical assets and clear legal ownership represented by the tokens. The transfer of tokens must adhere to property transfer laws.

  3. Smart Contract Integrity: Mitigating risks associated with potential bugs or vulnerabilities in smart contract code.

  4. Market Liquidity and Demand: Ensuring sufficient market demand and liquidity for the tokenized asset to thrive.

  5. Asset Valuation and Due Diligence: Establishing a clear and accurate valuation of the RWA to be tokenized, which involves due diligence to ensure the asset's legitimacy and worth.

  6. Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) Compliance: Token issuers must ensure compliance with AML and KYC regulations to prevent illicit activities.

  7. Data Privacy and Security: Compliance with data protection laws, like GDPR, is essential, especially since blockchain transactions are transparent and immutable.

  8. Taxation: The tax implications of tokenizing and trading RWAs can vary by jurisdiction.

Benefits of Tokenizing Real-World Assets

Tokenized RWAs offer multiple advantages:

  • Expanded Market Liquidity: Tokenization significantly improves the liquidity of real-world assets, facilitating more accessible and faster trading on a global scale through blockchain networks. This process transforms traditionally less liquid assets into more freely tradable forms.

  • Improved Transparency and Risk Management: The representation of assets on the blockchain ensures a higher degree of transparency. A proper application may allow for more effective auditing and asset tracking, contributing to reduced systemic risks in financial systems.

  • Enhanced Accessibility and Inclusivity: Tokenization democratizes access to various asset classes, enabling a more extensive range of investors to participate. It allows fractional ownership, making it feasible for smaller investors to engage in markets traditionally dominated by larger entities.

 RWAs Tokenization and DeFi

DeFi protocols are increasingly integrating traditional credit markets, such as equity and debt financing, into their frameworks, tapping into a market that drives trillions of dollars and forms the backbone of the global economy.

DeFi opens a gateway to a range of opportunities by converting various assets into digital tokens on a blockchain. This includes the utilization of RWAs as unique collateral or investment avenues, the creation of market efficiencies, and access to a level of liquidity that remains elusive in conventional financial markets. Tokenization enables businesses to leverage the DeFi ecosystem for capital acquisition, offering a lower barrier to entry and novel financing mechanisms, which are particularly beneficial for emerging markets. 

The DeFi ecosystem itself reaps significant advantages. These include new avenues for investment yield, access to diverse off-chain markets, and an expanded customer base that extends into traditional finance.

Examples of RWAs Tokenization

Financial Assets

Within the financial domain, tokenizing assets such as bonds, stocks, and shares heralds a new era of asset fractionalization. This process democratically opens investment opportunities to a global investor base, enhancing the liquidity and tradability of financial instruments. Tokenized financial assets enjoy the advantages of decentralized trading platforms — efficiency, reduced costs, and improved security.

Investment Funds

The burgeoning interest in tokenization from private equity and treasury funds is reshaping the investment landscape. Tokenization offers a comprehensive lifecycle for fractionalized investments, from inception to maturity. For fund managers, this equates to augmented distribution control and operational efficiency, while investors gain from lower entry barriers and improved liquidity. The legal considerations here are multifaceted, involving structuring to conform to collective investment schemes regulations and guaranteeing transparent and compliant distribution channels.

Payment Settlement

Tokenization also revolutionizes the payment settlement process. Delivery-versus-payment (DvP) models in token-based transactions can now bypass traditional clearing and settlement facilities, leveraging smart contracts for real-time settlement. This shift promises reduced costs and enhanced efficiency. Still, it must navigate the complex legalities of payment systems regulation, ensuring smart contracts fulfill the roles of traditional intermediaries within the legal framework.

Real Estate

In the real estate sector, tokenization is simplifying a historically intricate process. Real estate tokenization brings about a drastic reduction in transaction costs and intermediary elimination and opens the market to a broader investment audience. The legal terrain here is particularly challenging, requiring a legal basis for token structures, compliance with property law, and a framework for ownership and transfer rights in the digital space.

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs)

A significant development in asset tokenization is the advent of Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs). Unlike digital fiat visible in electronic bank accounts, CBDCs are unique in being issued on blockchain networks. This enables the traceability of each token throughout its lifecycle and allows for real-time tracking of CBDC holdings. Several nations, including major economies, are actively exploring CBDC implementation. While CBDCs hold promise for enhancing transparency and combating fraud, they also raise significant concerns regarding privacy and potential increases in governmental monitoring capabilities.

Fundraising Through Security Token Offerings (STOs)

In fundraising, blockchain tokens have improved the ability of projects and businesses to secure capital. The emergence of smart contracts on platforms like Ethereum has facilitated direct public fundraising through initial coin offerings (ICO). However, the regulatory stance on ICOs has shifted, with market regulators scrutinizing and frequently categorizing them as unregistered securities, thereby ushering in a period of legal and financial uncertainty for such fundraising methods.

Security Token Offerings (STOs) emerge as a solution, aiming to reconcile the nature of ICOs with the stringent regulatory environment of initial public offerings (IPOs). STOs allow entities, ranging from startups to large corporations, to issue digital securities directly to the public without intermediaries. These offerings must adhere to a regulated process, including publishing a detailed prospectus and obtaining approval from market regulators.

Precious Metals

Traditionally dominated by instruments like ETFs, futures, and options, the precious metals market is experiencing a liquidity transformation through tokenization. Digital tokens representing these metals, akin to those existing for gold, enable enhanced liquidity and facilitate instantaneous trade settlements via smart contracts.

Supply Chain

In the supply chain sector, tokenization is a game-changer, enhancing the traceability and authenticity of products. Blockchain tokens can verify the responsible and licensed origin, including the second-hand sale status. 

Art Market

By representing unique art pieces through numerous digital tokens, blockchain technology democratizes ownership, enabling a broader investor base to partake in the art market.

Intangible Assets

Blockchain tokenization offers enhanced protection for intangible assets such as copyrights, trademarks, and patents. By capitalizing on the immutable nature of blockchain, these assets can become tamper-proof and easily verifiable in real time. Converting a copyright or patent into a non-fungible token (NFT) can secure its authenticity and prevent unauthorized use or duplication.


The tokenization of RWAs represents a significant shift in asset management and investment. While it offers notable benefits like increased liquidity, transparency, and accessibility, it also poses unique legal challenges, including regulatory compliance, asset custody, and market viability. 


Prokopiev Law Group provides clear-cut legal services for businesses involved in the tokenization of real-world assets (RWAs). Understanding the challenges of regulatory compliance, asset protection, and the need for seamless cross-border transactions, we offer informed guidance within this complex domain.

Our firm taps into an extensive network of legal professionals across multiple jurisdictions to assist clients in various aspects of asset tokenization, from the initial stages of asset selection and smart contract development to navigating the final stages of token issuance and exchange integration. We focus on ensuring that our clients' tokenization strategies are not only innovative but also adhere to the current legal frameworks.

For enterprises venturing into the realms of DeFi, STOs, or the broader digital asset market, Prokopiev Law Group is equipped to address the legal intricacies with precision and professionalism.

The information provided is not legal, tax, investment, or accounting advice and should not be used as such. It is for discussion purposes only. Seek guidance from your own legal counsel and advisors on any matters. The views presented are those of the author and not any other individual or organization. Some parts of the text may be automatically generated. The author of this material makes no guarantees or warranties about the accuracy or completeness of the information. 


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